Sunday, June 29, 2008


For those students who takes Short Semester and Web Based Programming, here is the first lesson of HTML language. Before we continue to the next step of the lesson, you must ensure that you have mastered this first lesson of HTML.
HTML is the basic language where you can build a web page and embed programming language like PHP, ASP and JavaScript.
You can download the material >> here <<
NOTE: This download link will last until July, 2 2008. After the date it will not be available.

Google AdSense. How to starts!

Google Adsense, as we all know, is a program which can give us (as a website publisher) revenue from each page of our website. just by adding advertises that generate automatically relevant from Google.

AdSense sends relevant texts and images ads that targeted to our site and our site's contents. for example, if our site content is about Cars, then the ads will show about cars and things that relevant to it.

Now, what if we want to join this program, does it takes some money to join? the answer is, "Absolutely free!". Of course there are few things you have to prepare before you can join this program. One of them is a website, but, don't worry!!, build a website is as easy as flipping your hand. we can always use blogs!

If you are someone who's new to this kind of program, maybe this steps will help you to join Google AdSense. in these steps I'll use Gmail and Blogger as the publisher website.

You must create an email account. if you already had an email account, you can skip these step! But my suggestion, bulid an email account in Gmail if your previous email were not. You can create the account here. If your primary language is not english, please select english as your primary language in the account.

Once your email account is active, next, you need to create a website, like I said above, we can use a blog. in this case we can use
creating a blog in is as easy as 1, 2, and 3. just follow the steps and in less then five minutes you'll have your own blog (site). Don't forget, you must decide your focus of your blog (e.g articles, automotive, selebrities). If your primary language is not english, please select english as your primary language in the account.

I've had my own blog now, what shuold I do next?
Of course you can leave your blog empty without any contents. next step is fill your blog with contents that relevant to your blogs focus. fill your blog at least ten contents (posting) as a start. remember use english in your contents, why? because Google AdSense only accept site that its primary language is supported by Google Adsense. And English is well supported. Also you can reach a wider range of visitors.

Now this is it...
This is the most important step. We will propose an AdSense Account to Google. But first, you must ensure your blog is well ready with contents that relevant to your blogs theme.
Allright, if you are sure it's ready, you can join Google AdSense here. Fill the form and follow the registration step-by-step. You may need to fill your email address and your blogs URL.

Wait for approval from Google in 1-2 days. It will sent to your email. In the meanwhile, is not a bad thing if you pray for the approval ;-).

That's it!! I hope this articles is usefull.

Friday, June 27, 2008

A guide to RSS aggregators

A guide to RSS aggregators

by: Terry Leslie

One of the most popular Internet portals, Web sites, pages and even e-mails is a framework that provides an organized list of news headlines and periodic updates from other Internet sources. Really Simple Syndication, formerly "Rich Site Summary" or simply, RSS makes it possible.

Most users visit a large web sites whose content changes continuously, like news sites, community organization or a professional association of pages of information, medical websites, product support pages and blogs. Internet surfing has become an integral part of business and leisure, it is important to get rid of the very tedious to go back repeatedly at each site to see updated content.

RSS easily disseminate information from different Web sites for a larger number of Internet users. RSS Aggregators are programs that use RSS source for these updates, and then organize the lists of titles, content and rating for ease of reading. It enables computers to automatically retrieve and read the content that users want, then follow the changes and customize the lists of titles they are interested.

The specially made computer programs called "RSS" was created to automatically find and retrieve RSS pre-selected websites to the user's name and organize the results accordingly. (RSS and aggregators are also sometimes referred to as "RSS Channels" and "RSS readers").

The RSS aggregator is like a web browser for RSS content. HTML presents information directly to users, and can automatically RSS computers communicate with each other. While users use browsers to surf the Web and then load and view each page of interest, RSS keeps track of changes to many Web sites. The titles or descriptions of the links themselves and can be used to load the Web page that the user wants.

RSS starts with a website that the original content made available by the administrator. The site creates an RSS document and records this content RSS with a publisher who will allow other Web sites to disseminate the documents. The site also produces an RSS feed, or channels, which is available with all other resources or documents on the web server. The site records the RSS as a document with a list of appropriate directory RSS publishers.

An RSS feed is made up of the site's content list of most recent to oldest. Every point is generally composed of a single title describing the issue with a more complete description and a link to a web page with the actual content to be described. In some cases, the short description or title on the line is updated all the information that the user wants to read (for example, scores finals games in the sport, weblogs post, or stock updates) . Hence, it is not even necessary to have a web page associated with updating the content or items listed - sometimes all the information that users need to be in headlines and short summaries themselves.

The RSS content is located in a single file on a Web page in a way not very different type of Web pages. The difference is that the information is written in XML for use by an RSS aggregator and not by a user as an HTML page normal.

There are 2 major parties that are involved in the RSS syndication, namely: the source end and the customer.

The client end of RSS publication is part of the system that collects and uses the RSS feeds. For example, Mozilla Firefox is generally the score at the end of the transaction RSS. A user's desktop RSS aggregator program also belongs to the client.

Once the URL of an RSS feed is known, a user can give this address to an RSS aggregator program and the aggregator follow RSS feed. Many RSS aggregators are already preconfigured with a ready list of URLs RSS for news or popular news sites that the user may choose simply.

There are many RSS aggregators that can be used by all Internet users. Some may be accessible via the Internet, some are already integrated into applications e-mail, and other present itself as a standalone program in the personal computer.

RSS has evolved into many uses. Some uses are gaining in popularity:

• To shop online or retail establishments: Notification of new product arrivals

• For the organization or association newsletters: title and notification lists of new questions, including e-mail newsletters

• Weather Updates and other alerts of changing geographical conditions

• Database management: Notification of new items added or new members enrolled in a club or interest group.

The use of feeds will continue to grow, because of RSS aggregators make access to any information that individual users as more convenient and fun.

In the meantime, good luck for your journey to success…

OR if you want to succeed in creating immediate financial freedom to work only 4 hours per week, see

And for a limited time, you will also receive a free copy of a limited number of the amazing e-book of 60 pages "52 highly profitable online instant Business Ideas That You Can Steal your own and begin today on a budget very tight! "Who is jam packed with so many ideas you can use to instantly create an automated income for life! This is my gift to you as a way of saying thank you for reading my articles.

Taken from:

A guide on RSS tool

A guide on RSS tool

by: Terry Leslie

RSS is an abbreviation that has evolved in the following manner, depending on their versions:

• RDF Site Summary (also known as RSS 0.9, the first version of RSS)

• Rich Site Summary (also known as RSS 0.91, a prototype)

• Really Simple Syndication (also known as RSS 2.0)

Today, RSS stands for Really Simple Syndication "and it includes 7 existing formats or versions:
• 0.90
• 0.91
• 0.92
• 0.93
• 0.94
• 1.0
• 2.0

RSS tools reference to a group of file formats that are designed to share headlines and other web content (May be a summary or just 1 to 2 lines of the article), links to full versions of content (full article or by mail), and even attachments such as multimedia files. All these data are delivered in the form of an XML file (XML means eXtensible Markup Language), which has the names:

• Webfeed
• Feed
• RSS channel

They are generally listed on Web pages as an orange rectangle that has generally letters RSS or XML in it.

RSS can be used to provide any type of information. Some of these "powers" include:

• Blogs food - each blog entry is summarized as a supply point. This blog makes it easier to scan, which allows visitors to zoom in on their subjects of interest.
• Article food - this alert whenever there is new articles and content on the Internet.
• Forum of Food - which allows users to receive messages in the forum and topics for discussion later.
• Table power - which allows users (such as schools, clubs and other organizations) to broadcast events and announce changes to the schedule or agenda of meetings.
• Special discounts or food - this is used to enable users (such as retail and online stores) to "provide the latest specials and discounted offers.
• New ego or surveillance - which allows users to receive "filtered" headlines or information that are based on a phrase or keyword.
• the animal feed industry - technique used by professionals to market, promote, or communicate with current (and future) clients and customers in their industries.

RSS enable people to follow many blogs and information sources at the same time. To generate an RSS feed, all you need is the content or item you want to know and validated RSS a text file. Once your text file is saved to different aggregators (or news readers "), while external site can then capture and display your feeds to update automatically whenever you update your file RSS.

RSS are useful tools for sites to add or change their content on a regular basis. They are particularly used for "web syndication" or activities that involve regular updates and / or publications, such as the following:

• News Websites - as used by major news organizations such as Reuters, CNN and the BBC.
• Marketing
• Bug reports
• staff weblogs

There are many advantages to using the son RSS. In addition to being a great additional method of communication that optimizes the communication needs of different sectors, tools and RSS feeds may also have enormous advantages in your business, especially in the field of internet marketing.

RSS feeds and tools to provide Internet users with a free (or cheap) and easy advertising or online marketing opportunity for their businesses. Here are some characteristics that RSS can help make your Internet marketing strategies more effective.

1. Ease of distribution services for content. With RSS, your company can be captured and displayed by virtually any external website, which gives you an easy way to "spread out" and advertising.

2. Ease content regular updates. With RSS, Web content on your company can now be automatically updated every day (and even hourly). To Internet users will be able to experience "real time" that updated information in your file (for example, new products and other business-related releases) is amended and modified at the same time as the RSS that we subscribed.

3. Tailor content services. With RSS, visitors can have personalized content services, allowing them full control of the flow and type of information they receive. Depending on their interests and needs, visitors can subscribe only to content they need (such as real estate or job listings).

4. Increase (targeted) traffic. With RSS, traffic will be directed to your site as the readers of your content summary (1 or 2 lines in your article) who find them interesting are 'forced' to click on a link to your site.

These are just several of the many things you can do with RSS. The possibilities are endless, and they are all designed to provide you with an effective marketing strategy for your company.

In the meantime, good luck for your journey to success…

OR if you want to succeed in creating immediate financial freedom to work only 4 hours per week, see

And for a limited time, you will also receive a free copy of a limited number of the amazing e-book of 60 pages "52 highly profitable online instant Business Ideas That You Can Steal your own and begin today on a budget very tight! "Who is jam packed with so many ideas you can use to instantly create an automated income for life! This is my gift to you as a way of saying thank you for reading my articles.

taken from:

Symantec Norton Antibot later in Norton computer protection software

Symantec Norton Antibot later in Norton computer protection software
by: Lisa Carey
It seems that every two months a new "program" has just made along our life that much easier. For example, in the first place, we could bookmark favorite, and then RSS, and then there were widgets and now "robots", which are robots that are a big part of our computer work for us in 'background. Examples of weather friendship robots are robots, robot games, instant messaging and my favorites are those on AOL Instant Messenger, which does all sorts of functions for me as a store, find movie times and even updates on the Wall Street Journal .
Unfortunately, not all robots have been created "equal." Some are friendly and some are not. Those who are not friendly can be a form of malicious software that allows control of your computer to be released, providing hackers can access your information harmful and spread to other robots. This type of virus can then be used to spread spam and commit various types of identity theft and other online fraud.
So with new threats to our computers and information, new methods of protection are needed. One of the oldest and best-known designers of software protection has recently published a new protection program, Symantec Norton AntiBot. This software is a product designed to prevent the diversion of a personal computer by using robots and bots on the design of programs against them, lie and destroy them.
Many people already use some form of protection on their personal computer, such as increasing the level of protection of the Internet for information "high." But they can not detect some of the latest programs and bot May not be the most effective means of protecting information, especially with the Internet more and more frequently for online purchases, purchases of tickets, travel and other "high risk".
A more effective method to detect and eliminate threats caused by robots is to install software specifically designed to detect, prevent and destroy robots have access to your computer. With Symantec Norton AntiBot software, protection against bots is reinforced on several occasions and the threat of attack bot is greatly diminished. It Protection Program against bots blocking robots from entering your computer by downloading and e-mail attachments (two ways robots between a personal computer), control of any unusual behaviour of your personal computer and " eliminate, and detecting malicious bot software at all levels; keeping your personal, financial and credit card information security and stopping before identity theft, it can happen.
Because the robots operate in the background and are not detectable by antivirus or antispyware programs, many computer users are completely unaware that their personal computer has become infected. Many problems caused by robots go unnoticed until it was too late. Warning signs that your computer were accessed May include: the slowness of the computer and speed unusual or without error messages. However, many times with these symptoms are sporadic and computer users take little notice. Many people continue to use their personal computer, without knowing that robots have diverted their personal computer and are gradually at work, looking for credit card numbers, passwords and login information that can be used for identity theft and to commit other types of crime online. This program analyzes your personal computer on an ongoing basis, bridging the gaps that could allow bots infect your personal computer and to better ensure that robots are not invade and take control.
Using Symantec Norton AntiBot determine what a harmful or helpful bot and lets you continue to use robots as you like and have come to depend on information and services. It can be used in addition to several other antivirus and antispyware programs. Its compatibility is not confined only to Norton products. The cost of this software is $ 29.95 for one year of service. He received a PC Magazine Editor's Choice Award (2007) and has undergone rigorous testing which includes assistance AntiBot on computers with existing threats and allowing the threats in an attempt to access the computer after installation. With the growing threat of identity theft and credit card fraud Symantec Norton AntiBot provides an additional level of protection necessary to fight against the threat of robots and prevent them from turning a personal computer in a robot that is transformed into an instrument of destruction to both your personal and financial well-being.
taken from :

Thursday, June 26, 2008

Internet and businesses online - The law of interdependence

Internet and businesses online - The law of interdependence

by: Scott Lindsay

The best role of e-commerce is one of interdependence. We've all heard the old saying, "No man is an island." When it comes to this online activity is particularly true.

If a business owner who takes their activities in the online world determines they are autonomous and never accept help from anyone while individual will not be in business long enough to change his mind.

It is recognized that the greatest tool for long-term exposure of your website is by Search Engine Optimization (SEO). Without it, potential customers can not find you. It is not reasonable to expect that you can adequately develop a website without optimizing your site for better search engine rankings.

Search engines also place a high value on sites that have links placed on existing sites. These "backlinks" demonstrate to search engines other than the confidence of your site. By putting your link on their site these other companies show confidence and recommending your site.

Indeed, the two strategies listed above are based solely on what others can do for you when it comes to your online business.

Shirley Temple, once proclaimed in his film by Rebecca Sunnybrook Farm, "I am very independent." American Westerns are filled with lines dealing with traction you by your bootstraps and holding the fort. Many of us grew up in believe if we want to do something right, we must do it ourselves.

This reflection is in opposition to the rules associated with online activity.

The online world can only exist because people share. Individuals sharing technology, but also share links, comments, blogs, forums and a wide range of other marketing strategies to find a commingling of interdependence.

In online business you are dependent on others as May on you. Unlike the word "charge", the term indicates a mutual interdependence dependency. In other words do you see others to help provide links to your site while they are also your responsibility (or other) for the success of their business.

Have you really taken a proactive approach to networking? It is possible that you read today and what you've never considered asking someone else to place a link to your site on its online business. It may feel uncomfortable depending on others to achieve success in line especially if you've been led to believe dependence on others is also a sign to impose on others their generosity brilliant.

I suppose it could be a deep sense of pride that makes it difficult to envisage the need to ask others for help. However, the truth is depending on others is really what has made the Internet possible. The growth of the online world is composed of a link computers, networks and servers that are connected in a way that provides maximum benefits for all. Building an online business may feel a bit like trying to build a house of cards. Without the ability to rely on other cards "around you, it is virtually impossible to build. The interdependence. This is the essence of online transactions.

taken from

:: Fixing CMOS Error

What is a CMOS Checksum Error and How Do You Fix It

CMOS checksum error is caused when the CMOS values are incorrect or corrupted.
CMOS checksum error is caused when the CMOS values are incorrect or corrupted. This issue can occur because of:- Bad or old CMOS battery: Reboot the computer. If the error still occurs after rebooting, enter CMOS setup and check all values, this includes verifying that the time and date are correct. Once everything has been verified, make sure you save and exit the CMOS setup. If everything appears to be proper and the issue persists, try resetting the CMOS values to the defaults and/or Reset Configuration DataNote: If this issue continues to occur after you turn off your computer off it is possible that the CMOS battery may be weak or already used up. More details about replacing CMOS values can be found on your motherboard's manual- BIOS update:If you had recently updated your BIOS of the computer, the CMOS values could have been reset. Enter the CMOS setup and re-enter all the appropriate values. More details about entering the BIOS setup can be found on your motherboard's manual.If you are unable to enter into the BIOS setup or after running a BIOS update, your computer no longer keeps its values, it is possible that an incorrect BIOS update may have been installed for your computer or the version may be corrupted. We suggest you try to update the BIOS again or roll back to an earlier version. - Disconnecting power supply before properly shutting down the computer:If the power had been disconnected to the computer while running, it is possible that this could have corrupted the CMOS. Therefore, ensure that the computer is properly shut down before switching off the power supply. If you have a laptop, ensure that the battery is at least 25% charged before switching off the power supply. If the CMOS has become corrupted, enter the correct values in CMOS setup and save and exit the CMOS. This would surely solve your problem.

About Author
John Cicero has written articles on topics such as CMOS Checksum Error, BIOS and Runtime Error for The Tech FAQ. Article Source:

Wednesday, June 25, 2008

:: Tips for Purchasing Notebook ::

5 Tips For Purchasing Notebook

Author: Christy Myers

Most of the business executives and professionals are using the notebook for convenient usage and flexible nature.

It is one of the most advantageous features of the notebook. The notebook is most convenient for the frequent travelers. There are many companies offer notebook like Acer, HCL, Compaq, Dell, and Sony etc. The laptop is available in two different models like Celeron and Pentium.

Here are the five key tips to select the notebook.

1. You must have to get the idea about the different models and capacity of the notebook. You must go through Acer, HCL, Compaq, Dell, and Sony etc websites to know the specifications and prices.

2. The CPU of the notebooks is available in the two types like Celeron and Pentium processor. Depends on usage people prefer to purchase the CPU. There is one more Centrino processor is available in notebook. It is the latest version of dual features of better efficiency and the mobility.

3. The second important thing in the notebook is the battery life. You must have to select the notebook with longer battery life. Apart from that you must have to maintain the battery properly.

4. The third important is the capacity of the hard disk to save the data. The hard disk is available in different capacity right from 30 GB to 60 GB space. You need to install it based on your need. People uses MP3 music as well as see the screenshots in the notebook.

5. The forth-important thing is capacity of the RAM. The RAM is depends on your choice of configuration. You can select the RAM from 64 to 128 MB or 1024 MB RAM.

About Author

Christy Myers is a writer for Computer Notebook , the premier website to find Computers, computer, computer notebook, laptop computers, computer desktop, computer service and many more.

Article Source:

SEO, a basic description...

What is Search Engine Optimization - SEO?

Author: Anewraag

SEO tips and tricks. Here you can read what is SEO-Search engine optimization and the basics about search engine optimization and search engine marketing.

Search Engine Optimization (SEO) is a website marketing scheme that enables a web site to appear in the top search results of search engines, whenever a user types a keyword related to the website. It has been found that generally web users take their results from the first two or three ages of search engine listings therefore it will be wise to have your web site ized for search engines in such a way that it appears in first 10-30 results, hat's the basic idea behind Search Engine Optimization i.e. SEO.

Search engine optimization (SEO) is termed as the process of improving the volume and quality of traffic to a web site from search engines via "natural" ("organic" or "algorithmic") search results for targeted keywords. Usually, the earlier a site is presented in the search results, or the higher it "ranks", the more searchers will visit that site. SEO can also target different kinds of search, including image search, local search, and industry-specific vertical search engines. This was just about organic search results but now paid listings - Pay per click (PPC) Ads have also become popular, paid listings are othing but a concept that allows you to display your ads by paying a certain ount of money to the online advertising company, a simple example of paid ings are the ad's coming at the right side of your search results window which can be identified as "Ads by google".

Paid listings (PPC) doesn't mean that your ad will appear every time on google whenever a user in any country types a keyword, but the ads will be displayed only when a relevant search has been performed and also it depends on what keyword details are cified by you in your advertising campaign. Search Engine Optimization (SEO) is a vast field and also very complicated as its based on the regularly nging search engine algorithms or search criteria. ptimizing a site for search engines involves vast research work along with patience. Simply editing meta-tags and submitting your web site to search engines doesn't complish anything, in fact the importance of meta tags has been reduced in the sent scenario due to the changing web marketing environment. The most ortant factor that a web site must posses is - targeted keyword rich content.

The power of content dominates over meta-tags and other minor criteria's. The keywords included in the content should be thoroughly researched. Your e for optimizing a website should be unique and constituting many different -aspects needed for making a website's appearance felt in the World Wide Web.Search engines (Google, Yahoo, MSN etc.) often base their rankings on relevance and definite rules/algorithms so if you obey the es/algorithms in the way your website is set up, your site can attain better rankings in search engine results pages.

A search engine usually look at multiple ctors while deciding which site should rank, based on specific key words. So you should get your website optimized for specific key words, so that your ntial visitors or target audience can find you while searching specific keywords or keyphrases in search engines. Professional SEO services companies are skilled and knowledgeable in these areas and can help your website get the rankings in search engines that you want.

About Author

BIO: is a team of SEO experts in India providing seo/sem & smo services. is preferred SEO Experts in India. Check services we provide at - SEO Services India
To Know more About SEO check

Article Source:

Cheap Flash Drive

Cheap Flash Drive Options in the Market

Author: Lesley Lyon

Flash drives have become essential gadgets because of the comforts they offer for storage of files and their mobility. Read on to find the cheap flash drive products that are currently available in the market.

Flash drives are used to carry applications that run on the host computer without requiring installation.

Cheap flash drives are particularly popular among system and network administrators who load them with configuration information and software used for system maintenance, troubleshooting and recovery.

Small PC flash drives that can hold so much material that they are referred to as “digital backups”. The key chain size devices can hold textbook, novel and plays, study aids dictionary-almost anything. The flash drive consists of a small printed circuit board typically in a plastic or metal casing which makes the drive sturdy enough to be carried in a pocket or as a key chain.

Flash drives of 64 GB capacity cost around 1000 pounds. But 16 GB version is a cheap flash drive. Around 3 DVDs, 16 div films or 4000 MP3 s can be stored which costs only about 330 pounds.

There is a breakthrough in NAND technology that will slash the price of solid-state flash drives down to just $2/GB within 2 years. Specifically, the NAND technology has been leveraged into SSDs to reduce the price of the flash drive to half.

The flash drive max is set in rugged aluminum housing, can hold huge amounts of data and is durable. It is slightly larger than a stick of chewing gum. These cheap flash drives are complete with carry – it easy software and stores up to 16 GB.

Flash drives which are sleek and capless and can hold all the documents in an affordable, cheap price are also available and are a convenient device, not bigger than a pocket knife. It costs just $19.95.

Cheap flash drive is simple and the USB connector is safely housed inside the sleek case, so that there is no need to worry about losing the cap. This cheap flash drive holds documents, digital images and spreadsheets and offers a five –year warranty. A cheap flash drive called data traveler 100 is a reliable, inexpensive solution to carry digital files.

Cheap flash drives are used to carry applications that run on the host computer without requiring installation.

Another product flash drive mini of 1 GB capacity keeps track of available capacity and tells how much space is needed for selected files and settings. The most common use of cheap flash drive is to transport and use personal files such as documents, pictures and video. Even the cheapest of flash drives will store dozens of floppy disks worth of data.

A drawback of the cheap flash drive is, owing to their small size, they can be easily misplaced, left behind or lost.

Cheap flash drives are tiny, light, thin, waterproof and yet very powerful. It also comes preloaded with two puzzle games and no drivers are needed. Many of the cheap flash drives support finger print encryption, outlook synchronization, back up and much more.

Sooner or later flash drives will replace hard disk drives and hard disk may become obsolete.

About Author

Visit for complete information about all types of pen drives, flash drives, memory sticks, SD Cards and detachable hard drives.

Article Source:

RAM... What is it?

What is RAM

Author: Robert Thomson

RAM operates much like a human being's short-term memory. Much like the human brain RAM is able to draw upon the computer's long term memory for information. This is often necessary when short term memory becomes full. Most computers come equipped with at least 256 million RAM bytes plus the hard disk which has the capability of holding 40 billion bytes.

Anyone who works as their own tech geek on their computer system may be highly concerned about what is ram? It is a very important piece of a computer system. It is Random Access Memory which is the location where the application programs, the operating system, and data presently in use are stored. This way the computer's processor has the ability to reach them momentarily when needed. RAM is head and shoulders above the other various types of storage inside a computer system. It's even faster than floppy disk, hard disk, or CD-ROM. The information stored in RAM is only accessible for the length of time that a computer is begin run. Information previously stored in RAM disappears when a computer is shut down. When the computer is turned back on, information from hard disk is retrieved to bring RAM back to the forefront again. RAM is much like main memory that is accessible by programs.

How Does it Work?
RAM operates much like a human being's short-term memory. Much like the human brain RAM is able to draw upon the computer's long term memory for information. This is often necessary when short term memory becomes full. Most computers come equipped with at least 256 million RAM bytes plus the hard disk which has the capability of holding 40 billion bytes. Data is placed on a magnetized area that resembles a record. Computer printers also hold bytes of RAM as well. Each byte of RAM has the ability to be ascertained separately without the other bytes being accessed.

Types of RAM
RAM comes in dual forms. DRAM which is Dynamic Random Access Memory and SRAM which is Static Random Access Memory. DRAM is the most typical of the two types. DRAM requires refreshing at a rate reaching in the thousands each second. DRAM's times for accessing information are 60 nanoseconds. SRAM is more costly, but does operate at a much quicker pace than DRAM. The interlocking of a capacitor and a transistor produces a memory cell. This is one bit of data. Also, SRAM allows access at times as quick as 10 nanoseconds.

About Author

Steven Larue writes on topics such as RAM, VRAM and SRAM for The Tech FAQ.

Article Source:

How to build your own computer

How to build a Computer

Author: Directpc

This is a complete step-by-step guide of buiding your own computer. We are giving you all the tips and hints that you need to know before you start building your own computer.

Step 1: component selection
The first and most important part of any computer system assembly is proper component selection, both compatibility- and performance-wise. Ensuring that the memory is compatible with the mainboard, videocard is of the proper interface and supports the necessary features, power supply is of adequate wattage and quality, enclosure having adequate ventilation is a must-do in order to have a trouble-free system which performs as expected. The best ways to make sure that all the candidates for your system are compatible with each other are:

Review websites: searching for a review of every part is a good idea, as the editors often indicate whether any issues were encountered. A good review will also give you a performance comparison to other similar parts, so you will know what to expect from your system.

Salesperson or customer service representative: since it is a part of their job description, a knowledgeable service rep will be able to offer a good advice or suggestion as well as prevent possible complications.

A knowledgeable friend or acquaintance: chances are high that either you know someone who is into computers or someone you know knows one. Beware of biased opinions though.

In the end, the more sources of information you use, the better the chances of you getting the right hardware.

Step 2: assembly
Now that you have all the parts, time to make them a whole.

Prepare for assembly: make sure you are not wearing synthetic clothes as they could cause an electrostatic discharge and damage the delicate electronics. Also ensure the space is well-lit since you may need to operate with really tiny parts like jumpers. When unpacking the parts, it is best to leave them in/on the electrostatic packaging they came in until installation.

Install the power supply into the case and bolt it down. If it is a modular type then also install the connectors corresponding to the number/type of devices in your system. Now would also be the best time to install the extra case fans, if you got any.

Line the mainboard up with the case (or removable mainboard tray, if your case has one). Screw/snap the standoffs into the case/tray ensuring that you have the same number of standoffs as the mainboard's holes. If you have one or two fewer, no big deal; if you install an extra one it will touch the mainboard from the backside and will either short-circuit it or prevent it from powering up. Small but important detail.

Install the CPU by opening the locking mechanism on the mainboard and carefully dropping it in (refer to your mainboards' manual). Do not ever use any force; if it doesn't fit it means you may need to rotate it. Install the heatsink by placing it on top of the CPU and either pushing the locking pins through the holes (Intel) or locking the lever (AMD). Refer to the manual if not sure. Next, install the RAM modules ensuring that you match the notches (RAM fits only one way), as well as placing the stick in dual-channel mode, if your system supports it.

Now that the CPU and RAM are installed in the board, time to place it inside the case. Before you do that, however, make sure that you place the IO shield (the metal plate with cutouts for mainboard connectors) in the case. Almost every shield is unique, so you must use the one that came with your mainboard. After that, place the board right over the standoffs and bolt it down. Plug the large 20 or 24-pin power connector as well as the smaller 4- or 8-pin 12V power connector into the board. Now connect the HDD activity LED/power/reset button connectors, referring to the manual for proper placement.

Install the optical and hard drives as well as floppy drives and/or card readers into the case. Connect each one to an appropriate data cable, such as SATA cable for hard drives and flat IDE cable for opticals. If you have more than one optical drive, you may need to set the jumpers at the back of the drives, with one drive becoming the master and the other - slave. Plug the corresponding power cables from the PSU into each device as well. Card readers do not require a power cable, and get both power and data through the USB cable connected to the mainboard. Again, refer to the manual for proper USB connection guide.

Install the graphics card and other devices such as sound card and TV tuner. Connect the 6-pinIf you have an SLI or Crossfire platform, connect the two cards with a bridge if required. Note: it is also a good practice to first install nothing but a single videocard into the freshly-built system, as it will prevent possible conflicts which older operating systems are prone to, and then add one component at a time.

Now that your system is assembled, check that every component has power running to it from the PSU: videocard should have one if it is a high-powered one, HDD's, floppy and opticals should have a data and power cable.

Connect a keyboard, a monitor and the power cable. Now hold your breath and push the power button on the system you have built with your own hands. Considering everything was done properly, it should emit a short beep and start booting. It will stop at the point where it detects that no operating system is present, saying something like: "Boot disk failure, insert a boot disk and press any key when ready". Read on to find out what's next!

Step 3: OS and drivers installation and testing
So you have a system that's successfully powered up and is humming along. But to make it useful, you need to be able to interface with it. In the future, humans will be able to hook directly into the system; today, we use different Operating Systems, with Windows XP or Vista being the most common ones and others like Linux being used in more sophisticated fields.

First, restart your computer by hitting Ctrl-Alt-Delete simultaneously. When it starts booting up again, press Delete again right after it beeped in order to go into the BIOS setup. BIOS stands for "Basic Input Output System", and it performs the most basic tasks such as detecting hard drives before an Operating System has been even installed. Navigate through the options to find one that is called "Boot priority" (refer to the mainboard's manual). Set one of the opticals as the first boot device, and the hard drive(s) as secondary ones. Put the Windows installation CD/DVD in the drive designated as the first boot device. Now hit F10 to save the settings and reboot. Note: if you have a card reader connected, it might be a good idea to disconnect it for time being; otherwise, the main hard drive may be designated not as C: on some mainboards. Always power down the computer and disconnect the power cable when connecting/disconnecting devices!

This time, the PC will find the Windows CD/DVD in the drive, and will start the interactive installation. All you need to do is answer simple questions such as Time zone, who will be the main user etc. Upon completion of the installation, the computer will finally boot to Windows desktop.

Now, you must be eager to start using your new system. However, there is the last step to be taken: driver installation. Drivers enable the OS to recognize and use the hardware such as graphics and audio cards, network adapters, and even the mainboard itself is not fully functional until the chipset drivers have been installed. All the drivers can be found on the bundled CD's that came with the hardware. You should install the mainboard drivers first (sometimes the manufacturer creates a program that does all the driver installation for you), then everything else. Remember to reboot every time you are prompted.

Finally, it would be a good idea to test out the new system, to make sure that all devices are functioning properly. To do that, you can either simply use the computer for whatever purpose you created it, or run specialized programs which quickly determine whether your system is fully stable and is able to cope with heavy loads. The most popular ones are the 3DMark series by Futuremark for graphics stability and performance measurement, HDtach for hard drive performance measurements, memtest86 for memory, Prime95 for overall chipset/CPU stability and S&M for extreme load simulation. The exact way to use each one is included in the program's manual as well as is available on many forums/discussion groups.

There you have it, a pile of parts turned into a complete computer system. Unfortunately, the above guide represents the best-case scenario, and the reality is such that quite often a problem may occur at any one of the above steps, and resolving or even listing every potential one is well beyond the scope of this article. The best way to resolve one is either asking for manufacturer's help, browsing the forums or maybe even taking the system to the shop to have a certified technician take a look. Either way, there are no miracles and every problem has a fully logical explanation and a way to resolve it.

About Author

We are BuyDirectPC Computer Corporation, e-tailer of custom desktop and gaming systems, as well as cube PC's, Shuttle XPC's and custom-tailored laptops. Founded in 2000, we have experienced ongoing growth and while many other upstart companies were going out of business following the dot-com crash, we have successfully maintained our position of first-echelon custom PC provider. Today, many individuals and businesses trust our expertise to deliver a machine built to their specs from the finest off-the-shelf components, rigorously tested and carefully shipped for the best out-of-the-box experience. With so many cases of retailers taking advantage of their customers' trust and either jacking up the price, selling terribly misconfigured and untested systems or even using refurbished parts, our company has always made sure we maintained our top-tier retailer status by adhering to a strict ethical code, as well as employing only skilled individuals.

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